Thematic Analyses of Intercultural Communication Through Journal Literature

Lily A. Arasaratnam in Journal of International and Intercultural Communication (Volume 8, Issue 4, 2015) reviews the landscape of intercultural communication in the last ten years.untitled

Research in Intercultural Communication: Reviewing the Past Decade
This paper presents a thematic analysis of articles (N = 608) published in three major journals in intercultural communication research, within the timeframe of 2003–2013. The journals included are Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, and International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Eight themes were identified, namely (1) identity, (2) acculturation and global migration, (3) communication dynamics, (4) intercultural competence, (5) theories, models, scales, and frameworks, (6) perception, prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination, (7) cross-cultural differences, and (8) intercultural education, training, and study abroad. Each of these themes is discussed in relation to implications for future research.


In 2013 Arasaratnam employed this same thematic analysis approach on the literature of multiculturalism, honing in on one journal (International Journal of S01471767Intercultural Relations) instead of three, but taking a longer view, three and a half decades rather than one.

A Review of Articles on Multiculturalism in 35 Years of IJIR

This article is a review of literature on multiculturalism in 35 years of publications in IJIR, spanning from the first issue of IJIR in 1977 to the current issue in May 2012. The review includes empirical and theoretical articles alone. Multiculturalism is discussed in light of demographic, policy, and psychological aspects. An inductive thematic analysis revealed four themes, namely, Multicultural Education, Attitudes toward Multiculturalism, Multicultural Interactions, and Multicultural Identity. Each of these themes is discussed, and the implications of the findings are explored. It is noted that policy and practice are yet to be refined to match the ideology of multiculturalism.

BBC Media Action Resources

p034sf6p (1)BBC Media Action, the BBC’s international development charity whose goal is to use the power of media and communication to reduce poverty and help people to understand their rights, publishes good reports on its research and activities.  Check out the Publications and Resources section of its site for articles such as Humanitarian Broadcasting in Emergencies or How Radio and Distance Learning Built Skills and Knowledge for Cocoa Farmers in Sierra Leone.

If you are interested in media development issues in a particular part of the world you can search this section of the site by region or country; also by type of publication–research, policy, brochures, media action films, and stories of change (personal testimonies of how a certain tool or communication strategy made a difference).

BBC Media Action also has a blog that is quite active with several posts per week.



2015 World Press Freedom Index

The news is grim from Reporters Without Borders which has just published its annual index on press freedom around the world, 2015 World Press Freedom Index.     rwb

The findings are “incontestable. There was a drastic decline in freedom of information in 2014. Two-thirds of the 180 countries surveyed for the 2015 World Press Freedom Index performed less well than in the previous year. The annual global indicator, which measures the overall level of violations of freedom of information in 180 countries year by year, has risen to 3,719, an 8 percent increase over 2014 and almost 10 percent compared with 2013. The decline affected all continents.”

Data for the 180 countries includes an Abuses score, an Underlying situation score, and an Overall score.  Each country’s variance in rank and overall score from the previous year, 2014, is also indicated. Besides this charted data, the Index provides a narrative as well, pointing out the most striking developments in the year, overarching themes, and insight on how press freedom correlates with other country indicators.


2014 UAE Social Media Outlook

It can be difficult rounding up media usage data, especially international data, so I’m always  happy to throw such reports up on shore: 2014 UAE SOCIAL MEDIA OUTLOOK: INCREASING CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND CITIZEN.  The 26-page report is focused on the United Arab Emirates but includes data from the wider Arab region.

From the Introduction:

The UAE also tops the regional rankings across several social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn, consistently having one of the highest user penetration users in the region over the past four years. As such, this study will examine social media usage and trends in the UAE this past year, within the larger scope of social media usage in the region and its impact on Arab government, society and everyday life. It is a collaborative effort between the Dubai Press Club and the Governance and Innovation Program at the Mohammed bin Rashid School of Government and builds on the foundation of research conducted by the Program on the potential of social media to drive socio-economic growth and development in the Arab region. The study will comprise three parts: the first presenting the latest social media usage statistics in the region, with a focus on the UAE’s continued and exponential growth in the past few years; the second analyzing the results of a UAE-wide survey on the potential of social media to engage citizens in the design and delivery of public services; and the third documenting the success story that is the UAE Twitter ‘brainstorming session’ on public healthcare and education issues.

Electronic Surveillance/NSA Resource

New 13_oto Penn Libraries e-resources is the Electronic Surveillance and the National Security Agency: From Shamrock to Snowden (Electronic Surveillance), a collection of “leaked and declassified records documenting U.S. and allied electronic surveillance policies, relationships, and activities.This archive is part of a suite of resources available from the Digital National Security Archive (also known as the DNSA) which includes many other interesting US and international diplomacy, crises, and human rights collections. While the largest chunk of documents come from the post 9/11 era (761 documents), there are 73 documents from 1958-1976, 95 documents from 1977-2000, and 66 undated documents.

I would like to amend the statement in the finding aid, under Research Value of the Set, to include communication as one of the fields to which these materials could be of great relevance.

  • U.S. electronic surveillance capabilities and activities
  • legal issues concerning electronic surveillance
  • computer network exploitation and cybersecurity
  • intelligence liaison
  • foreign SIGINT Activities
  • U.S. foreign relations
  • security studies
  • international relations
  • U.S. policy making
  • the Ford, George W. Bush, and Obama presidencies
  • communication studies


I’lam Media Center for Arab Palestinians in Israel

I’lam Media Center for Arab Palestinians in Israel is a non-profit Palestinian media NGO based in Nazareth devoted to raising awareness and educating Palestinian society in Israel in media practices. “It also seeks to democratize media policies and practices within the local Arab and Hebrew language medias, towards the realization of media rights in Palestinian society.” –website

The site’s Publications section includes reports from 2005 to the present.  Titles from the last couple years (available for download) include:

The Challenges to Journalistic Professionalisim: Between Independence and Difficult Work Conditions, by Amal Jamal and Rana Awaisi (2012).

Arab Reporters Needed for the Hebew Press: Patterns of representing Arab-Palestinian Citizens in Israeli Print Media, by Amal Jamal and Kholod Massalha (2011).

The Marginality of Human Rights in the Israeli Media, by Dr. Amal Jamal and Samah Bsou (2012).

The Discourse of Human Rights in the Israeli Media, by Dr.Amal Jamal and Kholod Masalha (2012).

Polity’s Global Media and Communication Series

Polity Press has just published (2011) three excellent overviews of media systems and policy abroad.

European media : structures, policies and identity / Stylianos Papathanassopoulos and Ralph Negrine.

Indian media : global approaches / Adrian Athique.

Arab media : globalization and emerging media industries / Noha Mellor, Muhammad Ayish, Nabil Dajani, and Khali Rinnawi.

All three books are aimed at both students without prior knowledge of the media landscape of these areas as well as more seasoned readers who want to make sure they have good perspective on the the whole picture. These books are interdisciplinary and combine facts with theoretical insight.

All three titles are available at both Annenberg Reference and Van Pelt.

Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA)

The Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA) works to strengthen the support, raise the visibility, and improve the effectiveness of media assistance programs throughout the world. The Center approaches its mission by providing information, building networks, conducting research, and highlighting the indispensable role independent media play in the creation and development of sustainable democracies around the world.

CIMA’s website qualifies it for this resource blog because it hosts free research reports and its own bibliographic database of international media assistance resources. it’s useful to search such topics such as media and conflict, media and democracy, media development, new media, and sustainability by region.

Recent research reports include:

Media Codes of Ethics: The Difficulty of Defining Standards
Codes of Ethics incorporate best practices that may go beyond the laws of libel, defamation, and privacy. In the not-so-free world, these codes are not always the products of a self-regulating free press. They may represent a cultural and political compromise with a society or government that holds a more restrictive view of what journalists should and should not report.

News on the Go: How Mobile Devices Are Changing the World’s Information Ecosystem
Mobile devices now reach the farthest corners of the world. By the end of 2011, about 5 billion mobile phones will be in service in a world with 7 billion people. The implications–for politics, for education, for economies, for civil society, and for news and information–are profound.

Matching the Market and the Model: The Business of Independent News Media explains how lack of management skills and inexperience in developing effective business models poses a significant risk to the sustainability of independent news media. It explores a variety of different business models for media in several countries around the world and examines what lessons can be learned from those experiences.

Media and the Law: An Overview of Legal Issues and Challenges examines the different kinds of laws that affect the media and explains how they are used in many countries to influence the operations of news outlets and the information they offer. It primarily focuses on restrictive laws and legal challenges faced by journalists in developing countries, although laws in developed countries dealing with issues such as libel and terrorism are also considered.

Harvard to Digitize 80,000 Hours Israel Broadcasting Authority Content

The Jerusalem Post (10/27/2020) reports:

The Israel Broadcasting Authority and Harvard University signed an agreement Tuesday to digitize 80,000 hours of recordings dating back to the pre-state period.

…History conscious people at the IBA were aware that the technology of yesteryear was fast becoming obsolete and unless the archives were transferred to a system compatible with today’s technology, they would continue to deteriorate and a great deal of valuable information about the development of the state, issues that transfixed or galvanized the nation, and, most important perhaps, the voices and images of national icons would disappear.

The problem, as always, was the cost factor. With its huge deficit, the IBA simply could not enter into a multi-million dollar arrangement.

But what may have spurred the IBA to risk at least part of the cost, was the damage done by water leaks and building faults to precious books, manuscripts and other documents stored in the archives of the National Library….

After long months of negotiations [three years] with Harvard, an agreement was reached whereby the IBA would transfer copies of some of its archives to Harvard, which would digitize them, keep one copy for the library of the university’s Judaica Department and send another copy to the IBA.

The process is due to begin next week, and Harvard, as under the previous agreement, will keep a copy for itself.

Central European Journal of Communication

The Annenberg Library now subscribes to the Central European Journal of Communication, the official Journal of the Polish Communication Association. The first issue (2008) was the “result of the International Media and Communication Conference ‘Comparing Media Systems: West Meets East’ (Wrocław, Kliczków Castle, 23-25 April, 2007)” from which ten articles were selected for the maiden issue. The second issue (2009), focused on the “Impact of European Integration and EU Entry on the Media and Media Policy in ‘New Europe.'” “Political Campaign Communication in Different Media Systems”(2010), is the subject of the most recent issue which the library should be receiving any day now.

Note this journal is not available electronically. That will probably change at some point but for now it’s a paper only title. It’s also currently not indexed in Communication Abstracts or Communication and Mass Media Complete so you’ll have to go out of your way a little to keep track of it (check ASC shelves or website for information on current and forthcoming issues).